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Dogovor EU:migracije zaustaviti van granica Unije, solidarnost medju članicama izostala

priredio: APC    foto: Apc

July 1st – Despite the fear that a complete failure would come from the EU Summit of the EU Member States on the topic of migration, held last week, given their different views on this issue and the interactions of force amongst them, the maximum was achieved. (English version below)

1.juli – I pored straha da ce doći do potpunog neuspeha Samita lidera država članica EU na temu migracija, koji je održan krajem prošle sedmice postiglo se najviše šta se s obzirom na medjusobno različite stavove o ovom pitanju  i medjusobni odnos snaga, moglo.

Učinjen je mali korak napred, ali  je izostala toliko tražena  solidarnost članica EU o podeli tereta migracija,  što je čcini se, condition sine qua non za rešavanje ovako ozbiljnog i složenog  interkontinentalnog problema migracije.

Ali saglasnost nije izostala kada je reč o tome  da se migracije moraju zaustaviti van granica EU, kao i da se u tom cilju i dalje treba  raditi aktivno i prioritetno. Pre svega kroz jačanja saradnje sa trećim zemljama, Turskom i zemljama severne Afrike, kako bi se smanjio pritisak na granicama EU i smanjio priliv ljudi. Dogovoreno je i da se pokuša sa formiranjem centara za prihvat van teritorija EU, bilo na kopnu bilo na moru, što podrazumeva da je na sceni politika eksternalizacija po svaku cenu  i da to  ostaje priortet za sve clanice EU.

Ako je bilo lako postići dogovor oko toga kako braniti granice EU, činjenica da je postignut samo neobavezujući dogovor  o pomoci u  premeštanju izbeglica iz najopterećenijih zemalja članica (Grčke i Italije) i preuzimanju novopridoslih ljudi sa mora, govori da solidarnosti unutar EU i dalje nema.

Ovakvi rezultati samita ukazuju da članice ne odstupaju od sopstvenih ranijih stavova, a da se solidarnost očigledno ne postiže kroz samobavezivanje i konkretne obavezujuće dogovore, već se i dalje rešenje traži van solidarnosti i bez pravljenja kompromisa u pogledu osnovnih pozicija i stavova koje vlade zemalja članica imaju po pitanju migracije. Traženje rešenja bez ustupaka dovodi do zaobilaženja rešenja i  najefikasnijih načina da se ovaj problem ublaži i reši, a same usvojene novine imaju za sada pre svega za cilj da tehnički urede postojeće funkcionisanje sistema azila i upravljanja migracijama među članicama EU i ovaj problem odgurnu što dalje od svojih granica.

Države članice i dalje izbegavaju da se obavežu  i da daju nepobitne garancije da će pod bilo kojim okolnostima primati nove izbeglice u svoje zemlje što bi bilo najbitnije u ovom trenutku, pa i dalje postoji opasnost da najveći teret migracije ostane na plećima nekoliko zemalja članica na samim obodima Unije odnosno na Italiji i Grckoj. Situaciju za ove dve zemlje komplikuje i to što  na samitu nije došlo do zajednickog stava u pogledu promene Dablinskih pravila koje sada važe, pre svega pravila da teret priliva izbeglica prihvata uvek prva zemlja u koju su oni ušli, a ne druge zemlje članice.

Napori su, pak učinjeni da se i u EU formiraju zatvoreni centri za proicesuiranje azilnih zahteva, sa ciljem da se zaustavi veliko kretanje izbeglica unutar samih članica, a kako bi se donekle zaštito pre svega Šenegneski sporazum i ponovo omogućilo sklanjanje graničnih kontrola izmedju pojedinih članica Šengega unutar EU što u mnogome sada stvara ekonomske probleme i usporava transport i fluktuaciju robe medju clanica EU i takodje potkopava osnovne prinicipe Unije.

Sa ograničenjem kretanja u ovim centrima, pokušaće se kontrola migracija  odnosno da se proces udaljavanja ljudi iz Unije ucini sto efikasnijim.

Naravno, ovakve predložene mere, povlače i pitanja koje će zemlje prihvatiti kampove, kao i obezbedjivanje finansijskih i drugih sredstava za smeštanje i transport ljudi do tih centara,  ali i za njhovo udaljavanje iz EU ukoliko budu odbijeni u procedurama. Uz to nameće se i pitanje je da li takvi koncepti mogu da budu funkcionialni u praksi imajući u vidu rizike, da izbeglice počnu da izbegavaju takve centre i ostaju ilegalno  da žive u EU bez  traženja azila iz straha da će biti odbijeni i deportovani..

Pored toga, teritorija Balkana, a pre svega teritorija Srbije, i dalje ostaje poslednja stanica na putu migracije ka EU, jer uz povoljnu geografsku poziciju i činjenicu da je poslednja evropska zemlja koja se granici sa u+Unijom i šengenskim prostorom, Srbija za većinu izbeglica poslednji svetionik nade da se dokopaju Zapada i boljeg života od kog neće odustati bez obzira da li budu gurani nazad i odvraćani od zemalja Unije. Imajući u vidu da se najveći broj izbeglica koji ulazi sada u Srbiju orijentiše ka Bosni, ali da tamo ide pre svega zato što se suočava sa sve oštrijim tretmanom na madjaraskoj ogradi i sprskohrvarskog granici i redovnim ilegalnim deportacijama nazad u Srbiju, samo je pitanje vremena kada će i Bosna sama ili čak uz podrsku drugih drzava, poput Hrvatske, pokušati da zaustavi ulaske ljudi i početi sve da ih vraća nazad u Srbiju. Već sada mi imamo odbijanja ljudi koji žele da udju u Bosnu od bosanske policije na samoj granici, dok se puštaju samo oni koji su odmah tražili azil bosanskim policajcima na samoj granici pošto su uhvaćeni.

Nerealno je misliti da nas je sa trenutnim ulaskom ljudi u Bosnu prolazeći kroz našu zemlju, migracija zaista i zaobisla i da mi više ne treba da se bavimo ovim problemom.

Ljudi se sada značajno kraće zadržavaju kod nas, ali u našu zemlju ulaze i kroz našu zemlju prolaze do Bosne, jer i dalje većina puteva na Balkanskoj ruti vodi kroz našu zemlju i to se na žalost neće promeniti na duži rok. Trenutno ljudi idu u Bosnu jer pokušavaju preko Hrvatske granice koja je dugačka i teško ju je kontrolisati da uđu u EU i što uglavnom za sada i uspevaju.

Šta će se desiti ukoliko ljudi  pored Hrvatske, Madjarske, Rumunije, ne budu mogli  da  pređu ni u Bosnu, ostaje pitanje o kome moramo da razmišljamo, a da imamo sopstvenu politiku i strategiju prema ovom globalonom fenomenu migracije jer sudeći po porukama sa samita, za migraciju nema druge zajedničke politike osim politike njenog zaustavljanja van ili na samim granicama EU.

EU agreement: stop migration from outside the borders of the Union, solidarity amongst the members absent

A small step forward was made, but missing is the much-needed solidarity of EU-members on the divisive issue of migration, which of course is the sine qua non condition for solving such a serious and complex intercontinental issue.

But approval was not lacking when it came to the issue of migration needing to be stopped outside of EU borders, and that the goal is to pro-actively keep the issue in priority. Primarily through strengthening cooperation with third countries, Turkey, and the countries of North Africa, in order to relieve pressure on the borders of the EU and to reduce the influx of people. An agreement was made to try to set up reception centers outside EU borders, whether on land or at sea, which implies that at all costs, external politics is on the scene, and that this remains a priority for all EU members.

If it was easy to reach an agreement about defending EU borders, the fact that only a non-binding agreement on aiding the displacement of refugees from the most affected countries (Greece and Italy) and the movement of newcomers from the sea, says that solidarity within the EU still does not exist.

Such results of the summit indicate that members do not deviate from their own previous attitudes, and that solidarity is clearly not achieved through self-commitment and concrete binding agreements, but the solution continues to be sought outside of solidarity and without compromising on the basic positions and attitudes that the governments of member states have in terms of migration. The search for a solution without concessions leads to circumvention of the solutions and the most effective ways to alleviate this problem and solve the problem. For the time being the newly adopted documents primarily aim to technically regulate the existing functions of the asylum system and migration management among EU members and to move this problem as far from its borders as possible.

Member States continue to avoid committing themselves and giving unremitting guarantees that, under all circumstances, they will receive new refugees to their countries which is most important at this time, and yet there is still a danger that the greatest burden of migration will remain on the shoulders of a number of member states on its own the borders of the Union, ie Italy and Greece. The situation for these two countries is complicated by the fact that the summit did not reach a common position regarding the change in the Dublin rules that now apply, that first of all, stipulates that the burden of refugees’ return is always accepted by the first country they entered, not the other Member States.

Efforts have, however been made to form within the EU closed processing centers for asylum applications, with the goal to stop a mass movement of refugees within member states, and to furthermore protect the Schengen agreement, again enabling the removal of border controls between individual Schengen members within the EU. Which in many ways currently creates economic problems and slows down the transport and fluctuation of goods among EU members, but also undermines the basic principles of the Union.

With the restriction of movement in these centers, they will try to control migration and the process of removal of people from European Union as efficiently as possible.

Of course, such proposed measures also raise questions of which countries will accept these camps, as well as the provision of financial and other means for the accommodation and transportation of people to these centers, and furthermore for their removal from the EU if their procedures were to get rejected. In addition, questions arise around whether such concepts can be functional in practice, bearing in mind the risks that refugees begin to avoid such centers and would rather remain illegally living in the EU without seeking asylum for fear of being rejected and deported.

In addition, the Balkans, more so, the territory of Serbia remains the last stop on the road to migration to the EU, with a favorable geographical position and the fact that it’s the last European country bordering with the Union and the Schengen area, Serbia for majority of refugees is the final lighthouse of hope towards the West and a better life. A goal from which they will not give up regardless of whether they are pushed back and pushed out from countries of the Union. Bearing in mind that the largest number of refugees who enter Serbia have now oriented towards Bosnia, primarily because Serbia faces increasingly brutal treatment on the Hungarian fence, and the Serb-Croat border; therefore it’s only a matter of time that Bosnia alone, or even alongside the support of the states, like Croatia will try to stop the entry of people and will attempt to push them back to Serbia. There are already rejections being made to people who wish to enter Bosnia from the Bosnian border police, while only those who immediately seek asylum with Bosnian border police immediately after being caught are release.

It is unrealistic to think that with the current entry of people into Bosnia, who are passing through our country, that migration has indeed been circumvented and that we no longer have to deal with this problem.

People may be in our country for significantly shorter periods of time, but they enter our country and pass through our country to Bosnia, because most of the roads on the Balkan route still run through our country, and unfortunately they will not change in the long run. Currently, people are headed towards Bosnia because they are trying to cross the Croatian border, which is long and difficult to control, to enter the EU which for the most part, are currently succeeding in.

What will happen if people, alongside Croatia, Hungary and Romania, are unable to crossover into Bosnia? This remains to be a question that we must keep in mind, alongside having our own policy and strategy regarding this global phenomena of migration, because according to messages from the summit, there is no other common policy for migration other than the policy of stopping it outside or at the very borders of the EU.

 

 

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